Science and technology have expanded significantly over the years with new exploration providing interesting insights. The constant desire to explore for more, have got the scientists and engineers to go beyond the unthinkable. Space is an area where still extensive research is being carried out to answer unanswered findings. Today every powerful country is striving to improve its space agency and come out with revelation that is significant enough to put on thinking caps. Space technology is an important area to move a nation forward and there have been various instances when bilateral collaborations have been taken place in order to achieve research objectives.
India has been launching various space missions and expeditions which have bought laurels to the country. Indian Space and Research organisation was established on its 22nd Independence Day, 15th Aug 1969 by renowned physicist Dr. Vikram Sarabhai. Since its inception, India has shown exceptional capabilities in various areas of research and development. In 1963, the first sounding rocket was launched from Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station in Kerala which was used for probing upper atmospheric regions and space research. It marked the beginning of the Indian space program. In 1971, ISRO expanded its capability by setting up its launching pad named Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh. On 19 April 1975, first Indian Satellite, Aryabhatta was launched into space. It marked a milestone in India's space programme because it was completely designed in the country and launched from a Russian facility. The first experimental remote-sensing satellite which was built in India was launched in 1979 namely Bhaskara-I. The images sent by it are used in hydrology, forestry and Oceanography. In 1984, a joint manned mission of India and Soviet Union was launched. In this mission the first Indian cosmonaut, Rakesh Sharma, spent eight days in Russian space station Salyut 7.
ISRO was recently lauded for its Mars Orbiter Mission as we were the 4th nation to reach the mars surface and with least expense. Chandrayaan-2 failed during its final descent to moon but the mission accomplished 95% of its objective according to K. Sivan, Director of ISRO. The organisation has done commendable work over the years and continues to do so. The much awaited mission as for now stands the Gaganyaan mission which is scheduled to be launched by December 2021. The phenomenal India’s first manned expedition is stated to be carried out by 3 astronauts and a humanoid ‘Vyommitra’ developed by ISRO. The three astronauts have been selected from Indian Air Force and are being currently trained in Russia.
After facing a setback from Chandrayaan-2, ISRO is gearing up for its collaboration with JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) for Chandrayaan-3. Over the years, from ISROs achievement we can see that the organisation focuses on multiple collaborations, research in technology and attaining numerous milestones.
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